Since most of the patients who need to be operated, begin to feel anxiety about the surgery, and anxiety about awakening or awakening after anesthesia.Anesthesia is practiced by anesthesiologist and reanimation specialist in operating room conditions. Anesthesiologists are the most important part of the operating theater, even secret heroes. The surgery does not start until the patient is given anesthesia.Anesthesia means loss of sensations and sensations with loss of consciousness or loss of consciousness. In addition to the loss of pain sensation, anesthesia aims to control the stress, fear and anxiety that arise from the operation.
The most important task of the anesthesiologist is to examine the preoperative patient, choose the most appropriate anesthetic method for the patient according to his / her medical condition, and decide with the patient. General anesthesia, regional (regional) or local anesthesia; whether awake or sleeping is not a decision that seems to be a simple decision of anesthesia. The final decision of the anesthesia the patient will take: surgery, the length of the operation, the medical and surgical history of the patient, and the physical examination findings. Applicable anesthesia methods:
- Local Anesthesia
- Regional (local) Anesthesia
- Sedation and sedoanalgesia
- Mask Anesthesia
- General Anesthesia
Local anesthesia is achieved by numbing the nerve endings in a small area where only surgery is going to be performed. An example of this procedure is eye surgery, all open wounds to be stitched, all minor surgical procedures, and biopsy for pathology.
In this method, the pain and feelings in a certain area are removed without loss of consciousness and the surgical procedure is carried out. This includes spinal, epidural, spino-epidural anesthesia and nerve plexus blockages. This procedure can be done by spinal anesthesia, for example, cesarean section, painless birth, arthroscopy, lower extremity surgery, urology such as closed prostate, penile operations and general surgery like hemorrhoids.
The spontaneous breathing of the patient is protected and the pain and sensation sensation is lifted by the patient with mild anesthetic, analgesic and sedative drugs. In this anesthetic form, a mild local anesthetic is added to perform minor operations such as endoscopy, colonoscopy and circumcision.
The patient is anesthetized by inhalation of gas. This type of anesthesia can be used for a short time in small operations.
Without a change in life functions (i.e., without a change in heart and lung function), temporary loss of consciousness, suppression of reflexes, ensuring muscle relaxation, and relieving the pain of pain lead to safe surgical procedures. During the general anesthesia, all the life functions of the patient including respiration are maintained safely by the anesthesiologist using devices and monitors. With general anesthesia, all operations can be performed by providing all appropriate surgical conditions.
THE METHOD OD GENERAL ANESTHESIA APPLICATION
1- Preoperative examination: The patient must be examined and questioned by the anesthesiologist before surgery. Concomitant heart, lung and systemic diseases should be investigated. The history of the patient should be carefully questioned if he / she is absolutely drugged, if he / she has drug allergy, if he / she has already received general anesthesia, if he / she has received general anesthesia before, whether he/she had any comlications.
2- To quit smoking: Smoking is shown as the reason for postoperative respiratory problems. It takes between 1 week and 6 months for the lungs to be fully visible when the patient leaves the cigarette.
3- Obesity: Post-surgery problems are more common in obese people.
4- Emptiness of Remain: It is necessary to have at least 6-8 h fasting period before general anesthesia for adult patients, although it varies according to age. Problems such as vomiting due to tongue, escape of stomach contents to the lungs can lead to very important problems during and after anesthesia. For this reason, the patient should carefully perform what the anesthesiologist says about hunger for non-emergency surgeries.